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What can you do about anger and aggression in dementia?

Anxiety in people with dementia can often lead to agitation, which can lead to anger, aggression, and situations that can be dangerous for caregivers.

It’s easier to prevent anger and aggression in dementia than to defuse it once it has started. Using observation or behavior logs to identify patterns of behavior can help you figure out what’s causing it and develop strategies to try to prevent it and keep yourself safe.

Common causes of anger or aggression in dementia

  • Most often anger and aggression in dementia occur during personal care such as bathing, going to the toilet, or dressing. Frequently the person misunderstands the situation. She may feel threatened by someone trying to remove her clothes or touch her private areas, or feel humiliated, causing her to lash out.
  • Feelings of frustration, loss of control and fear can lead to angry responses. People who had tempers earlier in life may have more trouble controlling their tempers now. When they feel threatened or that their privacy is invaded or when they are having trouble doing a task, they may be quick to anger.
  • Feeling that one is being treated like a child, or that control is being taken away, can lead to anger. Most of us like to be in control of our own lives but dementia gradually takes that control away. Even though the disease is causing the problem, the anger is usually directed at the family member of caregiver.
  • Being told “no.”
  • A tense or angry environment is likely to prompt similar responses in people with dementia. Despite dementia, people are often sensitive to the “emotional environment” at home or in a care setting and will quickly pick up on other people’s tension or anxiety.
  • Sensory overload—too much clutter, too many people talking, too much loud television or radio, intense television shows—can overwhelm or frighten people and lead from anxiety and agitation to acting out aggressively.
  • Poor communication by a caregiver can lead to angry responses.
  • A fairly sudden change in behavior may have a physical cause. A urinary tract infection can trigger bizarre behavior or delirium. Arrange a medical evaluation to screen for infections, medical illnesses, medication changes or side effects that could be contributing to the problem.

Strategies to try for anger or aggression in dementia

  • Think about how to give your relative as much control as possible over decisions and situations that make her angry.
  • Try not to say no. Think of other ways to phrase things.
  • Don’t argue. You won’t win and this frequently leads to anger.
  • Do you sound patronizing or condescending? People with dementia are very quick to pick up on tone of voice and feel demeaned by it.
  • Try to figure out the feeling behind the behavior. Responding to the feeling is often one of the most helpful things you can do. “Molly, you sound so frustrated. I am sorry you are having such a hard time with this.” While you are not solving the problem, Molly knows you are listening to her. “Dad, you seem upset. Let’s sit here together for a few minutes. I will be here to help you. You are not alone.”
  • During personal care and other tasks, explain step by step what you are doing. “Dad, I’m going to help you take your pants off now.”
  • Create and maintain a calm, consistent environment.

Staying safe when your relative is angry or aggressive

  • Call for help if you feel the situation is really out of control or you feel threatened. This might be a neighbor or family member. Call 911 if you feel you are in danger.
  • Stay calm. Don’t raise your voice.
  • Don’t argue.
  • Back off. Leave the room if need be. If you feel threatened, leave the house and go to a neighbor’s.
  • Don’t get trapped. Keep yourself between your relative and the door so you can escape if you need to. If this is a frequent problem, talk with your relative’s doctor or consider whether it might be time to think about residential care.

Beth Spencer and Laurie White

Authors of Coping with Behavior Change in Dementia and Moving a Relative with Memory Loss

Can we go now? Handling repetitive behaviors

repeated questions can irritate a dementia caregiverRepetitive behaviors such as asking the same question again and again can be stressful and irritating for family caregivers.

Sometimes it feels like your relative with dementia is purposely repeating questions or statements just to annoy you. This is rarely the case. More likely, your relative is trying unsuccessfully to feel a sense of control. Behaviors that surface later in dementia—repeatedly tapping fingers, rubbing arms or thighs, fidgeting with things or pacing back and forth—are also a means of self-comfort.

Responding in a calm, reassuring manner is easier when you understand that physical changes in the brain often lie behind these behaviors. A person may not know that she is repeating herself. He may not know when or how to stop doing something, so he continues spooning his soup bowl when there is no more soup! Your relative may be completely unaware of his repetitive behaviors. You’re the one who may be upset.

What’s behind repetitive behaviors? 

Pain.  Pain can cause people with dementia to rock, pace or move in other rhythmic ways when they are uncomfortable. A person who is hungry may constantly ask, What’s for lunch? A person who feels cold may repeatedly check closets for a blanket or a sweater.

Depression and boredom.  Repetitive actions or gestures may be the only way a person who feels depressed can express herself or cope with certain places, situations or people. Feeling bored or unsure of what to do can prompt someone to repeatedly ask, What do I do now?

Emotions.  Your relative may be expressing an emotion such as fear, anger, or anxiety, and need reassurance. Wringing her hands or tapping fingers on a table may be a way that she is trying to comfort herself. She may be feeling vulnerable, especially in a new or unfamiliar environment with unfamiliar people. Being separated from a loved one can cause constant questions such as, Where’s Tom?

Lack of comprehension.  Asking What are you doing? may indicate that he doesn’t understand what you or someone else is doing.

Environment. Coats, shoes, purses, and umbrellas can prompt questions like Is it time to go now? And too much stimulation—too many people, too much activity or noise—can trigger statements like Let’s go now. Let’s go now.

What can you do?

Consider these approaches to interrupting or redirecting a repetitive behavior.

  • Apply our Behavior Detective approach to observe when behaviors occur and what might be causing them.
  • Respond with your full attention. Sometimes people with dementia no longer know how to get attention and may be using questions as an attention-getting device. Focusing on them and responding to their emotional needs can sometimes break the cycle of repetition for a while.
  • Respond calmly. Frustration or anger in your voice is likely to escalate your relative’s anxiety. If you find it difficult to conceal your frustration, try remaining silent.
  • Try ignoring the behavior or questions. If there is no response or reinforcement, the behavior may stop. However, some people may be very upset when they are ignored and become more agitated. For others, ignoring may eventually work. Be patient while you learn what works and doesn’t work.
  • Try a gentle touch when a verbal response does not help. A hug, holding hands or a gentle shoulder massage can be more reassuring than words.
  • Try giving the person a note with the answer on it. For example, if the person repeatedly asks When is lunch? When is lunch? write out Lunch is at 12 o’clock. Give the person the piece of paper. Sometimes, having the answer to look at can stop or at least diminish the question being asked repeatedly.

You can find many more suggestions and strategies in the Repetitive Behaviors chapter of our book, Coping with Behavior Change in Dementia: A Family Caregiver’s Guide. 

Change your own attitude

Sometimes, despite our best efforts, repetitive questions or movements will not stop. If the behavior is not stressful or a safety threat to the person with dementia, it may help to recognize that this is part of the disease. Changing your attitude to one of acceptance can sometimes help you cope with repetitive behaviors caused by changes in the brain.

Beth Spencer and Laurie White 

Dementia Care Books

 

When people can’t speak, behavior speaks for them

Behavior in people with dementia is a form of communication. When it’s no longer possible to express feelings through words, behavior speaks for them.

As dementia progresses, your relative may be unable to find the right words to say what she wants to say or ask. She may lose her train of thought or withdraw from conversations and social events because she can’t keep up or comprehend what other people are saying. And multiple conversations, loud noises or activities can be overwhelming. We knew one woman who would hold her head and moan whenever there were too many people in the room. Without using any words to describe the problem, she made her feelings perfectly clear!

The bottom line is: behavior is the language to learn as your relative with dementia loses communication skills. Pacing, wringing hands, moaning, are telling you something. Likewise, angry outbursts, anxiety, or aggression.

Learning to observe behaviors can help you understand what is behind them. When you understand the root cause of a particular behavior, you can try various strategies to address it. We call this the Behavior Detective approach. You can learn more about how to practice it here and here.

What are these behaviors?

Anxiety appears to increase among many people as they grow older. It’s easy to understand why your relative might be feeling anxious. Imagine not being able to hold onto memories or keep track of what’s happening, to have the world gradually become an unfamiliar, confusing and unpredictable place. Anxiety is not the same as anger, but especially when untreated, anxiety can lead to agitation, which in turn may lead to anger and aggression.

Agitation expressed through behaviors such as pacing, wringing one’s hands, crying or making loud repetitive noises, or trying to go home can indicate distress. Physical illness can cause or increase agitation. Many of us are anxious, agitated or irritable when we are sick and this is even more pronounced in people with dementia.  Pain can cause agitation. Sitting too long can cause it! Both anxiety and agitation can be a side effect of medications or changes in medications. Being tired, bored, frustrated, needing to go to the bathroom—all of these can trigger agitation.

Anger and aggression can be caused by the disease or by untreated depression.  People who had tempers earlier in life may have more trouble controlling their tempers now, especially when they feel threatened or are having trouble doing a task. Loss of control is another trigger. We like to be in control of our lives and schedules. Dementia gradually takes that control away. Feeling that one is being treated like a child or that control is being taken away can lead to anger. So can being told no.

Bathing, dressing and going to the toilet can be ground zero for anger and aggression. Frequently the person misunderstands the situation. She may feel threatened by someone trying to remove her clothes or touch her private areas, or feel humiliated that she needs help.  This often leads to feelings of frustration, loss of control and fear….which can lead to anger. Poor care partner communication—using too many words, a condescending tone, or approaching a person out of a person’s range of vision—can lead to angry responses.

Those angry responses are usually directed at the family member or caregiver. What can you do? Work on prevention! After a certain point, the person is probably not able to control his or her behavior. It will be up to you to observe the behavior, try to find a pattern, and then craft a way to respond that lessens or prevents anxiety, agitation, anger, and aggression. Your career as a Behavior Detective is beginning.

Beth Spencer and Laurie White